Volume 1424, Issue 1 p. 64-75
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Competition for the focus of attention in visual working memory: perceptual recency versus executive control

Graham J. Hitch

Corresponding Author

Graham J. Hitch

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, United Kingdom

Address for correspondence: Graham Hitch, Department of Psychology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. [email protected]; Richard Allen, School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [email protected]Search for more papers by this author
Yanmei Hu

Yanmei Hu

School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchu, China

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Richard J. Allen

Corresponding Author

Richard J. Allen

School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Address for correspondence: Graham Hitch, Department of Psychology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. [email protected]; Richard Allen, School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. [email protected]Search for more papers by this author
Alan D. Baddeley

Alan D. Baddeley

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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First published: 10 March 2018
Citations: 36

Abstract

Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention (FoA) can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a process that draws on executive capacity and boosts retention of information deemed important. In both cases, the increased level of retention can be selectively reduced by presenting a poststimulus distractor (or suffix). We manipulated these variables across three experiments. Experiment 1 generalized previous evidence that prioritizing a single item enhances its retention and increases its vulnerability to interference from a poststimulus suffix. A second experiment showed that the enhancement from prioritizing one or two items comes at a cost to the recency effect. A third experiment showed that prioritizing two items renders memory for both vulnerable to interference from an irrelevant suffix. The results suggest that some but not all items in working memory compete to occupy a narrow FoA and that this competition is determined by a combination of perceptually driven recency and internal executive control.