Volume 1346, Issue 1 p. 45-56
Original Article

Personalized medicine in diabetes mellitus: current opportunities and future prospects

Jeffrey W. Kleinberger

Jeffrey W. Kleinberger

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program in Personalized and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Toni I. Pollin

Corresponding Author

Toni I. Pollin

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Program in Personalized and Genomic Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

Address for correspondence: Toni I. Pollin, M.S., Ph.D., University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 West Redwood Street, Room 445C, Baltimore, MD 21201. [email protected]Search for more papers by this author
First published: 23 April 2015
Citations: 60

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus affects approximately 382 million individuals worldwide and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Over 40 and nearly 80 genetic loci influencing susceptibility to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively, have been identified. In addition, there is emerging evidence that some genetic variants help to predict response to treatment. Other variants confer apparent protection from diabetes or its complications and may lead to development of novel treatment approaches. Currently, there is clear clinical utility to genetic testing to find the at least 1% of diabetic individuals who have monogenic diabetes (e.g., maturity-onset diabetes of the young and KATP channel neonatal diabetes). Diagnosing many of these currently underdiagnosed types of diabetes enables personalized treatment, resulting in improved and less invasive glucose control, better prediction of prognosis, and enhanced familial risk assessment. Efforts to enhance the rate of detection, diagnosis, and personalized treatment of individuals with monogenic diabetes should set the stage for effective clinical translation of current genetic, pharmacogenetic, and pharmacogenomic research of more complex forms of diabetes.